The writings of an intense journalist

Monday, 30 June 2008

Using Internet to Conquer Poverty

Nigerians have new places to hangout on the internet. Many no longer visit the net only to browse the profiles of government agencies, the latest result of the English Premier League, and free websites such as Google and Yahoo for information and sundry activities. The young ones are not only browsing the websites of educational institutions to search for admission requirements or to pay the fees which these institutions may demand as a requirement for starting the school session.

The days may be ending where many Nigerians merely use the net to open their boxes to send and to receive e-mails or to contact people abroad in order to swindle them of their hard-earned money through one scam or the other. Many people may be shifting from sending photographs, addresses, and the like to attract foreign women to persuade or trick them into marriage.

The places many Nigerians increasingly visit are thousands of websites dotted here and there on the internet where there may be prospect to make some honest money. They became aware of these websites through seminars, word-of-mouth, workshops, training programmes, and random browsing. These websites are designed by nationalities of other nations, but they are being increasingly being designed by Nigerians who do not want to be left out of the boundless opportunities that are present on the web...

After spending years being indoctrinated on the impossibility of survival without gainful employment, many of these Nigerians are shaking away this dogma. Taking a cue from their contact with others on the net and the stories they hear about the experiences of citizens of other nations, they are seeing the economic importance of the web through honest work.

Statistics are scarce, but there is a lot of evidence to show that the way Nigerians use the internet is subtly undergoing a change as many are increasingly seeing the medium as a means to generate income in order to tackle the perennial problems of poverty, unemployment, underemployment, and other economic problems that afflict a sizeable number of people.

“Sincerely, there is virtually no information that cannot be obtained from the internet,” said Ajila Abitogun, an e-commerce businessman. “Surfing the internet can make you to get a new skill or business opportunity.”

These days a lot of Nigerians are agreeing with him. Those who are not deriving income directly from the net use it as a gateway to be trained to get one skill or the other to enable them to make money. Some others see the internet as a source to get the machinery, the training, the savvy, the information, and the know-how for a purpose which will enable them to generate an income. Still others provide service that enables them to earn an income directly from their knowledge about how the internet was built.

The internet was not always used this way by many Nigerians, who first saw it as a way to dupe foreigners. This led to many youths to visit the thousands of cybercaf├ęs that dot the country, contacting foreigners, telling them that there was a large of amount of money to be transferred to their accounts if they were willing to pay some money upfront, invariably duping them when the upfront money was advanced.

But when the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) started to raid cybercaf├ęs, arresting many suspected to be engaged in cyber crime, clamping them in cells, and releasing them only after paying large sums of money for bail, many started to have a rethink about using the net for cyber criminal activities.

Along with this development, many Nigerians, especially graduates, would spend many years trekking the streets in search of white-collar jobs and getting none. The oil economy that had propelled prosperity in the 70s and the 80s was no longer dynamic enough to absorb them. Their certificates, once a passport to a comfortable middle-class existence, a car and a house, was now irrelevant in the scheme of things. A new approach had to be focused on if the battle against poverty and unemployment was to be won.

"With the help of the internet, I have learnt that so many businesses are in existence which are unique and different from the run-of-the-mill ones," said Abitogun. "I got the idea for my business from the internet. I didn't have to travel abroad. Having made an order for the machines, I paid for the cargo, and it was brought to my doorstep." During the course of investigating this story, this reporter learnt about former office typists, dissatisfied with the amount of money they earned as salary, acquiring the skills to function as web designers and increasing their wages. Graduate degree holders in physics dropped their certificates in their cupboards and engaged themselves in website multimedia design businesses. Unemployed graduates were checking through the career links of online companies for information about vacant jobs and applying for them. Others were attending courses on the internet in order to apply for job slots which needed computing
skills. Still others upgraded their skills through the internet in order to clinch choice jobs during interviews.

Many Nigerians insist that rather than the internet to be seen as a negative medium where hundreds of people are duped of their money, it should be perceived as a means to solve the economic problems of the teeming army of the unemployed. Said Gbenga Ojo, a web designer: "First, I went into hardware engineering. I was doing network and wireless networking. Later, I discovered that I was better in graphic designing and programming and that is what I do now." Another Nigerian, who prefers not to have his name on print, stated that he was encouraged to start browsing through the internet because of the tales he had heard about the job opportunities which existed on it. After four years of browsing and not making any breakthrough, he stumbled on the fascinating idea of using internet marketing to sell products which a lot of people needed. "I bought the e-book for beginners, where I was taught the step-by-step method of how to use the 'forum system' to
discover peoples' needs, create them, and deliver it to them," he said. Instead of abandoning the e-book in one corner to gather dust, he set about using the idea to create products and to market them, and he has been in that line of business ever since. Others traced their present positive outlook of the net to the fact that they were able to get connected to online outsourcing websites, where they operated as programmers by writing articles for internet marketers, online companies, website owners, and others. Said Tunde Adebimpe: "I write for scriptlance.com on a regular basis. People who have projects for execution send them out so that we programmers can bid to do the work. The successful programmer in the bidding process gets to do the project. I have been doing this for some time now." Some other people visit the internet to search the database of online companies for vacant jobs and apply for them. Said Okonkwo Emmanuel, a manager of a company:
"In 2004, I heard about Jidaw and I enrolled. After the A+ computer and network engineering training, I became a professional techie. I then applied for a job on Jidaw's career link. The interview was conducted online, and I was the only successful applicant." Investigation by this reporter show that a number of people attend seminars on online foreign exchange trading and at the end of the course become involved in the business. Another way by which many Nigerians combat poverty and underemployment is by having websites designed for them so their presence on the internet can attract business to their companies. Said Phillip Obin, a businessman: "Many people will be persuaded if they learn a little more about you, your company, and products without having to call you or to meet you in person." He said that through an online means a company can easily be accessed for contact information, employment opportunities, product announcement, and investor
information just by visiting its website. Some Nigerians increase their income by undertaking to design websites for companies and being paid for the service. Kehinde James, a web designer, said he undertook some training before he could get involved in this line of business. He said:"One attribute of this job is that it does not require a huge capital to start it."

This reporter's investigation reveals that the use of the various resources of the internet has impacted on the lives of many Nigerians as it has enabled them to cope with many of their economic problems. The internet marketer who didn't want his name on print stated:” I decided to act on the e-book I bought. I used the 'forum system', and my online income increased from an average of $50 daily to over $2,100 in the first week."

Those who are involved in carrying out writing projects that are outsourced on the internet say the experience is worthwhile from an economic viewpoint. Adebimpe says: "I've already started to make some money. When I get some track record of successful job completions, the sky will be the limit. I definitely will leave my full-time job."

For those who access the internet for job vacancies and get trained by it to enable them to get their choice jobs, the story is no different. Okonkwo said: "I got to where I am by the grace of God, as I'm now the manager of a company called Central Link Nigeria Limited. And I'm so glad that Jidaw's e-solutions and training made the difference."

A few people access the internet as a medium to get ideas to start their business. "I got the idea of my business from the internet," stated Abitogun. "I also got the machines through the internet too."

However, a lot of Nigerians are sceptical of the view that the internet can play a part to enable people to tackle the problems of poverty and unemployment. "It's not a reliable way of making money to survive," said Chukwuma Ibezute, a publisher. "If you're looking for a job, do something practical about it."

But some who see the potentials of the internet as a source of job creation scoff at this view. Said Abitogun: "A lot of our people fear too much. Some people even fear the internet. We seem to be carried away by job hunting and cannot think of creating jobs for ourselves. We must create time to think and learn new things."

Other critics see the internet as a medium to open people to be duped by all sorts of scammers. Asks one critic: "How do you prevent yourself from being duped by 419ners? I see the internet as a place where you have job scams, where 419 people operate. It's better not to take risks by going to the internet."

But online companies with career links are aware of the risk of people being duped through job scams. "Don't pay money for getting a job," stated a warning on the website of Jidaw Systems Limited. "Don't disclose your personal/financial information to people or organisations you don't know. No responsible employment agency will charge or ask you for money."

Many Nigerians have not only learnt to take this advice, they have also found a way to get past job scams and dubious projects that are being posted everywhere on the internet. As more and more people begin to wise up to the idea that full employment may not be the solution to their problems of poverty, unemployment, and underemployment, they will hang out more on sites on the internet that will solve their problems. On these sites, they will discover that it is not the degree they possess that counts but the talent they have to display to millions of people the world over who use the internet.

Wednesday, 6 February 2008

FICTION

LATE REPENTANCE
By Adetokunbo Abiola
She smashed his set of plates against the wall and pushed his television set to the ground. She had flung a pot of soup against the table and the chunks of meat in it lay strewn on the rug. She had turned a plate of rice and beans to the floor and kicked at the trash can, garbage spilling out. All around the room the stink of beans and rice mixed with trash. She also scattered the chairs and tables and stools. The relationship was over with this bout of madness.
Standing in the doorway, Thomas remembered the quarrel of yesterday.
"I've told you I can't marry you," he told her. "I love Patience."
"You jilted her two years ago," Josephine said. "You denied paternity of her baby. Do you think her family will allow both of you to reconcile?"
He'd stormed out, only to return this morning to find her letter and this outrage. It was good she ended the relationship, he thought, he was free to pursue Patience. The chain with which Josephine fettered him for the past year was broken.
He spent hours cleaning up the flat. When he finished, he walked out of his abode to Julius' apartment in the same building. They sat facing each other in Julius' living room.
"I'm going to Patience's house," he told him. "I'm bent on reconciling with her."
"Is that possible?"Julius asked.
"It is. As a matter of fact, she's always wanted it. Her family has been the obstacle."
"In that case I wish you luck," Julius said. "Goodbye."
Moving towards his Volkswagen parked in the garage, Thomas sauntered out of the flat. He entered the car, started the engine, and drove out of the compound. The March sun beat down on the vehicle as it moved into the Benin City street.
Big gates screened Patience's house from where he parked on Oziegbe Street. He remembered that last year when he called the ground in front of the one storey building stretched to the road. Trees and a lawn sprawled round the compound when he left the car and stood by the gate. He noted that previously dirt surrounded the building, rubbish littered the steps. New sheets roofed the building when he walked by the lawn, fresh paint scented into his nostrils when he approached the house. He recalled that last year rusted sheets roofed it and it smelt of cassava, fried eggs, and dust. But the greatest change he found was not the gate, trees and paint: Patience and her family had packed out.
He heard someone chattering around the corner and the breeze blew a whiff of perfume into his nostrils. Following this, the cry of a child reached him. A woman and a child must be around me, he thought.
He marched in the direction of the cry, passed a gate, and emerged at a courtyard. He saw a woman in skirt and blouse with her hair tied in pony tail. She sat on a chair and cuddled a baby. He stood in front of her.
"Where can I find Patience and her family?" he asked.
The girl gave him a cool look, assessed him, and waved her hand in the direction of a bungalow down the courtyard. Thomas frowned at her manner but swaggered towards the steps leading to the building. Reaching a door at the head of the steps of the bungalow, he knocked forcefully at it. It opened and a man came out. He wore a scowl on his face.
"I'm looking for the new home of Patience Aghahowa and her family," Thomas said.
"Must you break down my door to find out?" the man asked and hissed, but he brought out a notebook from his shirt's pocket and stared into it. After a while, he said: "Go to 65 Iyobosa Street. You'll find them there." And the man banged the door against Thomas' face. "Useless man! How arrogant!" Thomas heard him say from behind the door.
He grinned and knew his forcefulness had unsettled the people in the compound. The reason Patience's family detested him. He promised to be less aggressive, but he swept past the girl on his way to his car.
At Iyobosa Street, Henry, Patience's brother, sat in a bar in the building, anger on his face. Unopened bottles of beer and stout stood by his feet. He glared at the glass in his hand and his eyes dropped on the bottles. He cursed and got up to his feet and swiped the counter with his palm, searching at the lockers with his eyes, looking for something. He didn't find it, his face sank, his shoulders drooped. He sat on his seat and scowled at the glass and the bottles. He lifted the glass to his lips and licked the drops of drink from it and stared bleary-eyed at the bottles. He grabbed one of them and held its top against his teeth. He was trying to pull off the bottle cover, trying to get at the drink, but his teeth suddenly let go of the bottle, and he squirmed his face.Straightening himself on his seat so he could put the bottle in his mouth, he looked up and saw Thomas, and he instantly got to his feet. The predator was about to vent his anger on a victim.
"Haven't I told you to leave my sister alone," he said without preambles.
"You've told me, but..." Thomas started.
"I'll tell you again and for the last time," he said. "Leave my sister alone!"
Thomas backed away from him and turned and looked around. He saw two young men dancing under a tree and a girl in a vest clapping and cheering at the top of her voice. She threw back her head and laughed. A girl like this would be more than a cheerleader, Thomas thought. He gestured to her and when she saw him she came over.
"I'm looking for Patience Aghahowa," Thomas told her.
"Tell him where she is and I'll bust your jaw!" Henry, who was watching, shouted at the girl.
The girl stared at him and then at Thomas. She hesitated. She mumbled something under her breath and moved back.
Shrugging, Thomas looked around, but froze when he heard Henry calling him. Thomas looked at him. Henry smiled and beckoned at him. Perhaps he had decided to be sensible, Thomas thought. He walked up to him.
"Come close," Henry said. "Don't be afraid of me. I won't hurt you."
"I know you can't hurt me."
Thomas hesitated, but he moved closer to him. Henry lunged forward and grabbed the pockets of Thomas' trousers. Thomas stumbled and tried to wriggle free, but Henry tugged and shouted at him and rammed his paunch into him. The sound of one pocket tearing cut through the air and a slap and a punch and another slap landed on his face. He staggered, stumbled against the wall of the bar, straightened up and crashed to the ground. He cursed under his breath.
"That'll teach you to stop jilting women!" Henry yelled. "Next time I see you here I'll blow off your head."
Thomas climbed to his feet and felt people gathering near. A sound buzzed about his ears, and he spat out saliva, sand and blood on the ground. As if from afar, he heard people condemning Henry and the latter shouting: "He must leave my sister alone! He must leave my sister alone!"
Thomas staggered to his car and sat in it, staring through the car windshield at the street and the sky. Should he forget this business about Patience? he thought. He remembered his conversation with Julius, and nasty women like Josephine, and he hesitated.
The girl in the vest stood by the car window. She frowned at Henry, hissed, and concentrated on Thomas.
"Patience told me about you," she said.
"Where's she?" he asked
"She's with her mother at 28 Legema Street. Off Lawani Street. Go to Mission Road Market and ask for Lawani. But she also told me she may be traveling out of the country."
Through his pain, Thomas thanked her and drove off.
He found the Mission Road market teeming with men, women and children while behind the stalls traders called in raucuous voices. He saw customers haggling with some of those selling and a man and woman fighting with a small crowd cheering. The smell of tomatoes, pepper and raw meat rose into his nostrils and the blare of giant loudspeakers, honks of car horns and growl of generators deafened him. He felt his spirit lift with the buzz and life around him, and he began to bounce with each step.
He bulled his way through the people in his path and bore down on a man standing idle in front of a music store.
"Where is Lawani Street?" Thomas asked, tapping him on the shoulder.
The man frowned.
"Lawani Street?" he asked. "What's my business with Lawani Street? And must you tap my shoulder?"
"I didn't tap to offend you," Thomas said. "I only wanted you to help me."
"I don't want to help you," the man snapped and turned away. Through the din the man complained: "What an arrogant man!."
"Go down Mission Road," said a man standing nearby. He was elderly and his hair all white. "Lawani is the eighth street to the left."
Thomas nodded and pushed his way through the people around him and went to his car. He sat for several seconds, staring through the car windshield at the street, bunching his face streaked with particles of sand, gritting his teeth white in the afternoon sun and clenching his palms placed on the top of his laps. Now that he was going to the house, he thought, he had to control his arrogance.
Getting to the house at Legema Street, he slid out of the car. He expected a tenement flat, crowded courtyard, music blaring, the smell of dust and dirt and children playing football and table tennis. He thought this was the kind of house that suited Patience's mother's temperament. But when he looked over the fence he saw a bungalow fronted by an empty courtyard, trees, a packed car and he smelt the scent of pop corn and bread wafting from the compound.
Thomas moved towards the house and knocked at the door.
It opened and Patience's mother stood in the doorway.
When he saw her, when he saw the anger and venom in her eyes, he moved back from the doorway, watching her hand clench into a fist. His eyes opened wide, his cheek twitched with fright. Ahead of him, he saw her lips curl with a hint of contempt. A tremor ran through him, but he smelt the scent wafting out of her clothes, heard the pant sounding out of her heart. He saw her eyes run over him as he stood: over his shirt, over his trousers and over his shoes. In the tense atmosphere, he felt like crawling into a hole and burying himself, burrowing into a hole and covering himself. Her stare arrested him as he held his hand to his mouth and coughed. He cleared his throat and tried to speak. The sound of her voice, sharp as a knife, stopped him.
"What are you doing here?" she demanded.
In a flash, Thomas bent down. He had appeared from nowhere at her door, rousing her from whatever work she was doing in the house. She had come to the door to find the man who jilted her daughter at the threshold, market stink rising from his clothes, to see the man she banned from her house come knocking at her door, anxiety rimming his eyes. She would scream and shout at him, swear and bang the door against his face, unless she heard a penitent voice. He spread out his palms, his eyes pleading, and fell to his knees.
"I'm sorry, mother," he blurted out.
"Sorry for what?" she said. "For jilting my daughter?" The door moved towards him, about to close against his face. .
"I made a mistake," he told her. "I shouldn't have done that. I did because I feared I wouldn't be able to cope with her and the baby.".
"And you came today because you think you can cope now."
"Yes, mother."
"Your repentance comes too late."
He crouched on the floor and rubbed his hands together and raised his head and tears sprang out of his eyes.
"Its not too late," he insisted. He crouched again and said with great feeling, "Forgive me, forgive me. Let me reconcile with them. Let my heart be at peace."
She stared at him, holding onto the door. Thomas saw the struggle within on her face. Finally, she sighed and she swung the door open for Thomas to enter.
He sat down on an armchair in the living room but sensed the approach of impending disaster. Patience wasn't around. The music turntable, usually switched on at Iyobosa Street, was silent. The air hung thick in the flat. As Patience's mother sat opposite him on a sofa, she shook her head sadly.
"You wanted to speak with Patience, isn't it?" she said, shaking her head again. "Unfortunately, she left for the United States yesterday. She took my grandson along with her. She has gone to start a new life. I couldn't stop her. That's all about Patience." She stared at him and her face hardened. "She left because of your behavior. You were arrogant to me and her brother. Humility, the cheapest commodity in the market, you couldn't give. All she got from you was being jilted. And the paternity of her son denied."
Through the stream of her words, Thomas processed only one clause: left for the United States. If he had come for reconciliation, he didn't see how he could get it: he didn't have the money with which to pursue her to the United States . Patience, whom he truly wanted, was now out of reach, perhaps forever. Patience, jilted by him because he didn't have the money then, forced to cry when he denied paternity of the child, denied before her family: he had forced her to flee the country.
"I'll give you a piece of advice," continued Patience's mother. "Show your repentance quickly next time. Then, perhaps, something like this won't happen again."
Stumbling, he moved to the door and opened it and stepped outside. He had bungled everything, he thought. He slid into his car and drove home, entering his flat and collapsing on his bed, falling asleep. When he woke up, he thought about the visit to Patience's house, his child, and the relationship. He beat his hand on the bed and shook his head. He had been wrong to jilt Patience. He had been wrong to deny paternity of the child. He had been wrong not to show humility to the family. He had been wrong about everything. As he lay his head on the pillow, he muttered: "I was wrong. I was wrong"

First published by Flask Review (April 2007)(http://www.freewebs.com/theflaskreview/abiola.htm)
OF INTERNET, ELECTIONS, DEVELOPMENT
By Adetokunbo Abiola
In 1999, when Donald Duke contested for the governorship position of Cross Rivers State, he didn’t make use of the internet as a tool to campaign. According to a source, he used the traditional media of the typical Nigerian politician: taking advert slots on television, radio, and newspapers; pontificating on the soap box; and taking part in rallies organized in most of the towns and villages in the state.

In 2007, when the same man wanted to contest as president of the federation, things had changed. As in 1999, this reporter learnt, he took adverts in the traditional media of television, radio, and newspapers. He also mounted the soap box and took part in political rallies. But he added another medium to spread his ideas. He went to the internet to develop a website and a blog to enhance his campaign rhetoric and to hold intellectual debate with selected voters.
Welcome to the world of the internet and the 2007 elections. As stories about that election continue to unfold, this reporter’s findings show that the resources of the internet played a role in the conduct of the campaigns, public discussions, and debates by candidates, voters, public commentators, and other stakeholders.

The conduct of elections in the country has changed as thousands of Nigerians search for good governance, transparency, and accountability in order to ensure the political development of the nation.
In the last poll, according to researchers, many who were internet-use inclined expressed their ideas through blogs. Those who did not use blogs used websites to campaign and to debate on national affairs as pertinent to the polls. Those who did not use websites or blogs contributed through list serves. Ndansanjo Macha, writing on Global Voices Online, said: "Nigerians used the internet to state what was taking place during the campaigns and on the election day."

Nigerians, this reporter gathered, did not previously make use of the internet and other information communication technology (ICT) resources to participate in an election. Experts say it became an option when the nation experienced a dramatic increase in the number of those who accessed the internet as a tool between 1996 and 2007. According to researchers at Open Net Initiative (ONI): "The number of internet users grew from under 10,000 to 1.7 million."
In the last elections, say researchers and bloggers, Nigerians from different strata of the society used the internet as a tool for advocacy and campaign. One form through which it was used, this reporter gathered, was through the platform of blogs. Macha stated: "Blogs that were covering the Nigerian election are African Spritis, Grandiose Parlor, Black Looks, Yomi Says, One Notes, True Days, Chxta, Naija Blog, The World According to Adaure, Olumiyi David Ajao…"

Findings by this reporter show that another set of internet users during the election campaigns were politicians seeking public office. Investigation reveal that candidates such as Donald Duke, Olusegun Mimiko, Pat Utomi, and others belong to this category. Further findings by this reporter also show that civil society groups such as the Freedom of Information (FOI) Coalition, Zero Corruption Coalition, Krazitivity , Naija IT Professionals, and others fall into the latter group.

The result of this change in political behavior, this reporter learnt, was that international attention was focused on Nigerian bloggers and researchers. Bill, author of a blog called ‘Jewel in the Jungle’, said: "I cannot think of any group of people from an African country that have been more influential and active in the blogosphere in the past three to four years than the Nigerian blog authors and their readers worldwide. There’re many good online authors who hail from Nigerian and write extensively about Nigeria." While investigating this story, a number of blogs authored by Nigerians were seen on different web pages, as well as comments made by Nigerians on them. Along with these were blogs authored by candidates seeking office; some of them had websites as well, while those without both used list serves. Many of the blogs, such as Nigerian Election Hotline, were specifically developed to publish stories on the 2007 poll that might not reach Nigerians. According to its home page, "Nigerian Election Hotline is an effort to publish stories on the 2007 poll that might not otherwise reach the reading public." Nigerian internet users who did not use the above media , this reporter noted, used wikis, podcasts, and other social networking tools.

The manner Nigerians used the internet, researchers say, were many and diverse. "Apart from providing socio-political content and writing critical commentaries and analysis, local bloggers shared their experiences and stories as bloggers," said Macha. Along with sharing experiences about the campaign, he said, Nigerians also published videos, audios, and text to illustrate their debates and discussions. "Greenlight Nigeria publishes audio, video, and text from contributors on the ground," said Macha. "It also used Eroca to allow readers to leave text contents." Macha said that apart from vocal Nigerians, candidates were also involved in the phenomenon. "As a communication strategy, Olusegun Mimiko, a governorship candidate in Ondo State, started a blog," he said. "The blog contained campaign photos, and election reports." Apart from him, Macha said, Donald Duke started a website as well as authored a blog. "Before he pulled out of the PDP Presidential primaries," said Macha, "Donald Duke started a website donaldduke4president.org as well as a blog."

Investigation reveal that list serves were used as well to conduct discussions, debates, and campaigns. A source said that before Pat Utomi, the presidential candidate of African Democratic Congress, came to the public to announce his presidential ambition, he sounded out the minds of the members of the FOI list serve. "We have to get out of our comfort zone," he was reported to have said.

Findings also show that while the campaign was on, ordinary Nigerians were busy holding discussions, debates, and analysis on the campaign and the candidates jostling for public office. Along with the list serves, researchers say, groups such as the Stakeholders Democratic Network, sprang up and used the internet to comment on the campaign. According to its author, the group was formed to "to use several network tools and the power of the web to get the people talking about the elections and democracy in Nigeria." The Nigerian Election Hotline, this reporter gathered, also strove to make sure that Nigerians had access to information to enable informed choices to be made during the campaigns. It stated in its home page that the initiative is "an effort to make sure that Nigerian voters have access to the information they need to make informed choices at the polls."

Though it may be an overstatement to say that the use of the internet by Nigerians during the 2007 election campaign significantly influenced the course of events, there is no doubt that the trend made an impact. Researchers say that the blogs added new voices and perspective to the elections. Macha said: "Considering the election related posts and comments in the Nigerian blogosphere, it is safe to say that Nigerian blogs added new voices and perspectives in election coverage in Africa."

Internet use, this reporter was informed, also created greater awareness about issues that defined the campaign. Researchers say the awareness creation through the use of audio, and video testimony on the blogs and websites were inspiring. Said Tobias Engen, a blogger: "Greenlight Nigeria.org has been inspiring by monitoring with audio and video testimony posted just about daily."

The campaign coverage on the internet also enabled opinion to be formed about the issue of transparency in the exercise. According to researchers, this was brought about through first-hand account of the elections. Experts at Open Net Initiative (ONI) stated: "Nigerian bloggers are overwhelmingly affluent and urban, and are hardly a representative population. Nevertheless, they offer important first-hand account of the election."
The use of the web also brought to the fore fundamental questions about accountability, transparency, and good governance. This reporter observed that Nigerians on the list serves posted comments pertaining to these concerns. Political experts say this is a continuation of a trend which may lead to the political development of the country in the long run.

Generally, experts, researchers, bloggers, and readers alike posit that the use of the web resources to cover the election is worthwhile. This reporter gathered that the trend is being encouraged. Said Ugo Daniel after reading Funmi Iyanda’s blog about her election experiences: "An eyewitness account like this is worthwhile. I hope the contributor would be writing more on this blog."

Despite the impact of internet use on campaigns and elections, this reporter learnt that there were limitations. Bloggers expressed concern that the whole exercise did not stop political violence. Eigen stated: "I did an internet search, and while there were some bloggers discussing the election, I did not see any clear effort to use blogging specifically to prevent violence during the elections."

The limitations of internet use during the campaign, researchers say, can also be seen
in the use of it by candidates. This reporter gathered that the main presidential candidates ignored web resources during the period. Macha said: "None of the main presidential candidates, Atiku Abubakar, Umar Yar’Adua, and Muhhammed Buhari, had blogs."

The fact that there were problems with candidates that used the internet was also an issue. This reporter learnt that Donald Duke had to invite voters to his blog to debate with him. Macha said Donald Duke had a blog, but one had to be invited to get into it.

Can the internet be embraced by Nigerian politicians on the same level as done in the United States? Will the internet become as influential as pre-internet campaign media among Nigerian politicians? Omodudu, a blogger, gave this injunction: "Snap a picture, make a video, write a comment." If candidates obey this injunction directed to the entire Nigerian population, there would be more Donald Dukes in election campaigns in Nigeria in the foreseeable future.